Liberation is the name given to the process of opening narrowed veins in the neck of patients with a condition which has been called CCSVI. It is thought that these narrowed veins reduce the blood flow from the brain. The theory is that due to the reduced calibre of the veins, blood (and the iron of which hemoglobin is composed of) stays in the brain longer than non-CCSVI patients. The result is that this iron gets deposited in the brain, where the immune system treats it as an invader. When the immune system attacks the iron, it therefore also attacks the neurons in the brain itself.
Once the veins have been opened, the blood drains normally, and the associated iron is also flushed away. There have been anecdotal reports of patients having symptoms stop, or even reverse.
The procedure is very controversial, and there are no long term studies as to its extended effects. Several studies are underway to verify the theory, but they are in their early stages.
The North American and European medical communities are treating the theory with a healthy dose of skepticism. The only options for treatment are currently only available in three countries: Poland, India, and Bulgaria.
A very good overview of this theory and procedure can be found on the CTV news website: